8. Read the passage and follow the directions.【2 points】
Ancient Easterners saw the world as consisting of continuous substances while ancient Westerners tended to see the world as being composed of discrete objects or separate atoms. Remarkably, it is still the same in the modern era.
In a survey of the values of middle managers, Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars examined whether respondents from both Eastern and Western cultures thought of a company as a system to organize tasks or as an organism coordinating people working together. They asked respondents to choose between the following definitions:
(a) A company is a system designed to perform functions and tasks in an efficient way. People are hired to fulfill these functions with the help of machines and other equipment. They are paid for the tasks they perform.
(b) A company is a group of people working together. The people have social relations with other people and with the organization. The functioning is dependent on these relations.
About 75 percent of Americans chose the first definition, and more than 50 percent of Canadians, Australians, British, Dutch, and Swedes chose that definition. About a third of a group of Japanese and Singaporeans chose it. Thus for the Westerners, especially the Americans and the other people of primarily northern European culture, a company is an atomistic, modular place where people perform their distinctive functions. For the Easterners, a company is an organism where the social relations are an integral part of what holds things together.
Fill in the blank with the ONE most appropriate word from the passage.
Research shows that people from Western cultures tend to see the world in a more atomistic way. This view leads them to see a social institution like a workplace as a system to perform distinctive functions. On the other hand, according to the Easterners’ perspective, a company is seen as an interdependent organism. Its function is made possible by __________ among its members as well as between the members and the organization. Knowledge of such differences can be helpful for intercultural understanding.
2019학년도 중등학교교사 임용후보자 선정경쟁시험 1차 2교시 전공A 서술형 13번
13. Read the passage and follow the directions.【4 points】
There’s no shortage of therapies for autism, some of which work well, some not so well. But there is one simple treatment that hasn’t been getting the attention it may deserve: time. According to a new study in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, some children who receive behavioral interventions to treat autism might be able to age out of their symptoms, outgrowing them like last year’s shoes.
The idea of maturing out of psychological ills is not new. All 10 personality disorders, for example－including schizoid, which shares features with schizophrenia－can lessen as people age. Some of this may be attributable to patients’ learning to manage their symptoms, but it’s also possible that the brain, which is still developing into our late 20s, is improving too. “The fact that these things aren’t engraved in granite is terribly exciting,” says psychologist Mark Lenzenweger of the State University of New York at Binghamton.
There have been hints that this kind of remission might be possible in autism, but previous studies were plagued with questions about whether the children who had apparently shed their autism were properly diagnosed with the disorder in the first place. In the current analysis, a team led by psychologist Deborah Fein of the University of Connecticut looked at 34 people ages 8 to 21 who had been diagnosed with autism but no longer met the criteria for the disorder. It compared them with 44 patients in the same age group who still had symptoms. Both groups had received similar treatments. After the researchers corrected for other variables, the subjects with the better outcomes seemed simply to have matured out of the condition.
“I view it as a landmark kind of study,” says Geraldine Dawson, chief science officer for Autism Speaks. Others disagree. It’s possible, they say, that some kids just mask their symptoms, imitating healthy behaviors that they come to appreciate as desirable. Still, it’s hard to dismiss Fein’s work entirely. The 34 subjects whose symptoms had vanished were able to attend school without one-on-one assistance and needed no further social-skills training. Something had to account for that, and maturation, in this research at least, is the best answer.
Describe what the underlined part refers to. Provide TWO pieces of evidence showing that the group of 34 subjects in Fein’s work had recovered from autism. Do NOT copy more than THREE consecutive words from the passage.
The underlined phrase “this kind of remission” is referred to as the hints of improvement in symptoms of autism. After treatments, 34 patients who had suffered from autism could go to school by themselves and had a little social skills as the time went by.